Found by Julian Phillips near Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. It is possibly debris from the old gas works. Cardowan Fire Clay Works, Stepps, Glasgow. . . . .
(THE FIGURES / ENGRAVINGS ARE NOT REPRODUCED)
The early pottery of Scotland appears, as a general rule, to bear a close analogy to that of England both in form, in intention of use, and in ornamentation. The cinerary urns, the food and other vessels, and the immolation urns, all bear a marked resemblance to those of the sister country, and lead one to the inference that the same feelings, habits, and customs obtained in the one nation as the other. A cinerary urn found on the Hill of Tuack is of identical shape and pattern of ornament with the one en- graved on Fig. 15 of Vol. I., while others bear an equally strong resemblance to others already engraved. To Professor Wilson the antiquarian world is indebted for much valuable information concerning the early pottery of Scotland, and to his important and standard work, the " Pre-Historic Annals of Scotland," it owes most of the knowledge it possesses of this, and other im- portant branches of national history. " It is altogether impossible," says the learned Professor, " within the limited amount of accurately observed facts with which the Scottish archaeologist has to deal, to picture and classify into distinct periods the pottery found in the ancient tumuli and cairns. Many of the fictilia are so devoid of art as to furnish no other sign of advancement in their constructors from the most primitive state of barbarism, than such as is indicated by the piety which provided a funeral pyre for their dead, and even so rude a vase wherein their ashes might be inurned. . . . The rudimentary form of the true cinerary urn is that of the common flower-pot, still retained as the easiest and simplest into which the plastic clay can be modelled. . . . From this simple shape was gradually developed the varying forms both of sepulchral and domestic pottery found deposited with the dead ; inurning the sacred ashes and the costly tributes of affectionate reverence, or placed in the grave with offerings of food and drink designed to sustain the deceased on his final journey to the world of spirits." Fig. 740 is of this form and is almost identical with the English example Fig. 15, Vol. I. It is from the Hill of Tuack, near Kintore, in Aberdeenshire, and was found in the usual inverted position close to one of the monoliths of the stone circle at the place. Another of the same form, Fig. 741, ornamented with impressed dots and incised herringbone pattern, was dug up in 1855 on the farm of Belhelvie, in Fifeshire. It was 4 feet 6 inches in circumference at the mouth, and when perfect must have been about 2 feet in height. When found it was, as is commonly the case, inverted, as shown in the engraving, and was imperfect. Another fine example is engraved on Fig. 742. It measures thirteen and a half inches in height, and was dug up at the Ha' Hill of Montblairy, in Banffshire. It bears a marked resem- blance to many English examples, both in general form and in orna- mentation ; it bears encircling lines of herringbone or zigzag ornament. Figs. 743 to 745 are of different form, the two larger being probably food vessels, and the latter an " immolation urn." The first two were found in a cist on a farm at Banchory, in Kincardine- shire, along with an interment by inhumation, and the latter at Arthur's Seat, in Edinburgh. In the next engravings, Figs. 746 and 747, the larger vessel was found in a tumulus at Memsie, in Aberdeen- shire, and the smaller at Rathbo, near Edinburgh. Figs. 748 to 750 are three interesting vessels from Lesmurdie, in Banffshire, now in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. The largest is eight inches in height, and the smallest five inches. Fig. 751 was found in one of a group of cists, under a large cairn, at Sheal Loch, in the parish of Borthwick, near Edinburgh. It is made of fine baked clay, burned to an unusually hard and durable consistency, and measures four and a half inches in height by about six and a half in diameter. Five perforated projections are disposed at nearly equal distances around it, and the interior of the vessel bears evident marks of fire. Fig. 752 is from the Montrose Museum and was found in that burgh some years back. The other three, Figs. 753 to 755, are "immolation urns," as I have before termed them, which are respectively from Old Penrith, from Dunbar, and from Ronaldshay in Orkney. During Scoto-Roman times, pottery, there can be no reasonable doubt, was made in Scotland, and many examples that have been brought to light are evidently native manufacture; there are, however, -no marked peculiarities belonging to them. Of a later period, " the last pagan period in Scotland," according to Professor Wilson, some remarkable glazed urns were found, one at East Langton, the other in Aberdeenshire. They were found in stone cists by the sides of skeletons, and were " of rough grey ware, ornamented externally with parallel grooves running round them, and internally covered with a green glaze." They appear originally to have had " two projecting ears opposite each other, which fitted into corresponding double ones attached to a lid, by which the vessel, when found, was closely covered; and the whole of the projections were perforated to admit a pin which completed the fastening." As of the primitive so of the mediaeval pottery of Scotland ; it differs but little from that of England, and indeed, except in a few instances, cannot be distinguished from it. Pitchers of the usual form, perforated jugs, bowls, dishes and platters all were pretty nearly identical with those of English make, and but few seats of manufacture existed. The wares were of the commonest and coarsest kind. As in Ireland wood was more generally used than anything else for such utensils. Of mediaeval pottery Figs. 756 to 759 are characteristic examples. The first of these is a pitcher found in 1792, filled with coins of Alexander II. of Scotland and Edward I. and Edward II. of England, near Penicuick House, where it is preserved. It measures three and three-quarter inches in height, and is perforated at tolerably uniform dis- tances. It is of coarse unglazed earthen- ware. Fig. 759 is a mediaeval pitcher found near North Berwick Abbey, in East Lothian ; it bears a marked resemblance to some engraved in Vol. I. That china was attempted to be made in Scotland in the middle of last century is evident from the following paragraph from the London Chronicle of 1755: "Yesterday four persons, well -skilled in the making of British china, were engaged for Scotland, where a, new porcelain manufacture is going to be established, in the manner of that now carried on at Chelsea, Stratford, and Bow." But nothing is known as to the locality of the proposed works. GLASGOW. The first pottery established in Glasgow was, it would appear, founded in 1749 as a delft-ware works. It was situated near the Broomielaw, in a lane which was called the "Delft-field Lane." " Delft-field Lane " is a very suggestive name, and of course took its origin from the pot-works. The name was, I am informed by Mr. Cochran, " changed to 'James Watt Street' in later years. The celebrated inventor of the steam-engine lived in this lane, and it was in one of the rooms of the pottery that he was in the habit of working at his invention, and it is said, perfected it. The ware manufactured at this pottery was delft ware, and was a close imitation of the old grey Dutch ware of that name ; but about the year 1770 the proprietors began to make 'Queen's ware,' or white ware. They also began to make both plain and ornamented china, of such excellent quality that they received the compliment of being appointed potters to the Prince of Wales. How long this pottery lasted I have not been able to ascertain, but it was working in full perfection in the beginning of the present century. The next pottery which was built in Glasgow was about the year 1801, when the " Caledonian Pottery," on the banks of the Monkland Canal, was erected. This is the oldest pottery now working in Glasgow, for although Verreville was built more than twenty years before it, yet earthenware was not made there till the year 1820." Verreville Pottery. In 1777, as the name implies, the Verreville Works were built for a glass-house, by a Mr. Cookson, of New- castle, and a Mr. Colquhoun, of Glasgow. In 1806 they were sold to the Dumbarton Glass Work Company, who immediately resold them to Mr. John Geddes, with this stipulation, that he was not to manufacture crown or bottle glass. Mr. Geddes carried on the manufacture of flint glass until 1820, when he commenced making earthenware as well as glass. In 1835 the works passed into the hands of Mr. Robert Alexander Kidston, who four years afterwards added the manufacture of china to that of glass and earthenware. " He began," I am told by Mr. Cochran, " by bringing skilled workmen and artists from the principal seats of china manufacture. Figures, porcelain basket work and flowers, were produced by work- men who had acquired their skill in the old and celebrated porcelain works of Derby, while Coalport and several of the most famous Staffordshire china works supplied a general staff of potters, together with gilders, and flower and landscape painters. Mr. Kidston carried on the business for several years and produced a beautiful porcelain, and upon his retiring from the business in 1846 was succeeded by the late Mr. Robert Cochran, who carried on the works with great vigour and success. In 1856 he ceased the manufacture of china, and devoted the whole of the works to the manufacture of earthenware. Mr. Cochran devoted great attention and spared no expense in promoting the introduction of labour-saving machinery. He also made great improvements in the kilns or ovens in which the earthenware is fired, by which he reduced the quantity of coal used to nearly one-half. It was applied successfully in his own works of Verreville and Britannia, but was not adopted by other manufacturers. This improvement w r as patented in 1852, and it is only now that the same principle, with some slight alterations, has been patented and is likely to be generally adopted by potters. Mr. Cochran died in 1869, and was succeeded in the Verreville Pottery by his son, also named Robert Cochran, by whom the works are still carried on. The goods manufactured are principally for the home trade, and consist of white, sponged, printed, and enamelled ware. No marks have ever been used except the initials of the proprietors stamped on the ware." Verreville it is said was the first work in Scotland where china was manufactured. Garnkirk Works. These works were established about half a century ago by Messrs. Sprott, by whom and later by Mr. Mark Sprott they were carried on. They are now continued by the trustees of the late Mr. Mark Sprott (Messrs. Sprott, Gillespie, and Cameron), under the style of the " Garnkirk Fire Clay Company.'' The goods produced at these works are the ordinary classes of fire- clay and terra-cotta articles, including ornamental chimney shafts and smoke-valves of good design and excellent mechanical construe- tion ; sanitary pipes and other appliances ; architectural enrichments ; garden edgings and balustrades of more than average beauty in design, of which examples are given in Figs. 760 to 762 ; garden vases of great variety in design and of different sizes ; fountains, notably an example of five tiers, supported by figures of dolphins and cranes, with basin twenty-four feet in height and sixteen feet across, erected in the public park at Aberdeen ; busts, statuary, both single figures and groups, including Baily's lovely conception of " Eve at the Fountain," "Gleaner," "Minerva," "Bacchus," "Atlas," &c. ; pedestals, brackets, and every other variety of ornamental goods, as well as fire-clay, bricks, blocks, &c. The markets principally sup- plied are the home, and those of France, Germany, Russia, and the East and West Indies. The mark used is simply the word Garnkirk impressed in the clay. The Gartcosh Works were established by Mr. James Binnie, in 1863, and have since then been considerably extended. The pro- duce of these works is terra-cotta vases, tazzas, pedestals, foun- tains, &c., of remarkably good design and of fine and durable quality ; ornamental and plain garden edgings ; gothic, clustered, and other chimney tops ; ridge, flooring, and roofing tiles ; cattle, horse, and dog troughs ; copings ; sewage and sanitary pipes of every description ; glazed and unglazed fire bricks, furnace blocks, and all other goods for fire-resisting purposes. The clay is found about fifty fathoms below the surface, at Gartcosh ; the strata being from eighteen to twenty-five feet in thickness. It is found underlying large beds of sandstone in what is called the limestone series, which lies between the upper and lower coal series of this dis- trict. The following is the analysis : silicic acid or silica, 60*96 ; alumina, 37*00; peroxide of iron, ri6; lime, 0*64 ; magnesia, 0-24 ; total, 100.00. Heathfield Pottery. At these works Messrs. Ferguson, Miller, & Co. produced some admirable vases in terra cotta, which were shown at the 1851 Exhibition, and are here engraved. One of these (Fig. 764) was a vase of large size and excellent modelling ; it bore a frieze of figures typical of the great gathering in 1 85 1 . Fig. 765 shows, among its other ornaments, a nuptial procession, designed in the style of the antique; these figures were modelled with great accuracy, and are arranged in an artistic manner. The works passed in 1862 into the hands of Messrs. Young (which see) ; the moulds, &c., including those of these vases, became the property of the Garnkirk Company. Glasgow Pottery. These works were established in 1842, by Messrs. J. & M. P. Bell & Co., in Stafford Street, Glasgow, for the manufacture of white and printed earthenware, and soon rose to the first rank among the potteries of Scotland. Particular attention was from the first -paid not only to the excellence of body of the ware, but to improvement in form and in style of decoration. In these particulars they were eminently successful, and in 1851 received honourable mention at the Great Exhibition. Later on the manu- facture of china was commenced, and later still the fine white and pearl granite wares, and white and decorated sanitary wares. The works are of great extent, and produce all the usual varie- ties of goods in dinner, breakfast, tea, toilet, dessert, and other ser- Fig. 770. vices, as well as all the usual classes of articles, and in every variety of style, from the plain white or cream colour to the most richly enamelled and gilt patterns. The earthenware services are of more than average excellence of quality, and the china, both body and glaze, of superior class. Some of the dessert plates issued by Messrs. Bell, with hand-painted groups of flowers and perforated or open-work rims, are equal to most English makes ; while some of the tea services are of tall classic form and of excellent taste in colour and decoration. In parian Messrs. Bell & Co. produce some admirable vases with figures in relief, and other ornamental goods ; the quality is far above the average. The old marks used by the Glasgow Pottery are the following : Fig. 782, an eagle holding a roll, on which is inscribed the name of the pattern, and, underneath, the initials of the firm, J. & M. P. B. & Co. ; Fig. 783, the Warwick vase and the name, J. & M. P. BELL & Co. The later marks are (Fig. 784), a garter bearing the initials of the firm, J. & M. P. B. & Co., surrounding the trade mark of a bell; the name of the pattern below. These are all printed on the ware, while another, impressed in the body, is a bell with the initials J. B. (Fig. 785). Another is a bell only (Fig. 786). Some of Messrs. Bell & Co.'s exhibits are shown in the engravings Figs. 766 to 781. North British Pottery. These works on Dobbies Loan, produce the ordinary qualities of earthenware goods. Saracen Pottery. The Saracen Pottery was established in 1875 by Messrs. Bayley, Murray, and Brammer, at Possilpark. The firm manufacture Rockingham, cane-coloured, Egyptian black, jet, and mazarene blue wares on an extensive scale, mostly, in tea-pots, jugs, and other useful domestic articles, both for the home and foreign markets. The mark used is the initials of the firm and name of the B M & Co works Port Dundas Pottery Company. These works were established for the manufacture of stoneware articles about the year 1819. In the earlier years of its existence there were several changes in the proprietorship, but for the last thirty years it has remained in the hands of, and been carried on by, Mr. James Miller. The works, from a somewhat small beginning, have attained considerable proportions. In 1856 they contained three salt-glaze ovens, in which were manufactured chemical vessels and apparatus of various kinds, spirit bottles, jars, &c. ; and about this time many of the towns .in the North of Scotland, finding the desirability of having a good water supply introduced, had recourse to high- pressure stoneware water-pipes for that purpose, which were manufactured in large quantities at these works. Several towns and many country mansion houses at the present time have their water supply conducted through miles of the Port Dundas pipes. In the same year a new glaze was introduced, giving to the ware a cream-coloured appearance, much purer and cleaner for many pur poses than the old brown salt glaze, and with this a great demand sprang up for stoneware beer bottles for warm climates, and the works consequently have been greatly enlarged to meet the increased demand. By far the greatest portion of ware made in Port Dundas is thrown on the potter's wheel, the motive power for which was supplied, until 1866, by girls, who turned a large driving wheel communicating with a pulley under the workman's wheelhead by a rope. The proprietor in that year endeavoured to introduce steam power for this purpose, but so strong was the opposition of the throwers that the machines and accompanying shafting, &c., lay aside for three years unused. They were then erected in a distant part of the works, and apprentices all but forced to work on them. These, however, had not been long fitted up when the workmen, seeing the immense advantages to be derived from their use, gladly availed themselves of the offer of the proprietor to substitute steam machinery for hand-power throughout the whole factory, the imme- diate result of which, was to raise the piece-work earnings of the workmen from 30 to 49 per cent. ; they had one attendant less to pay, a part of whose wages the workman kept to himself, while a pro- portion of it was paid to the Company for the use of the steam- power and up-keep of the machinery. The speed of the wheel requiring to be varied according to the different operations per- formed upon it, is now under the complete control of the workman's foot, and not as formerly at the will, or according to the strength of, the assistant wheel-turner. In this way a complete revolution was quietly effected in the stoneware potting of Scotland, and the incentive having been given, orders came from many potteries in England to the Scotch machine maker for similar steam machines. With the introduction of the cream-coloured stoneware glaze the ovens had to undergo extensive alterations, the old salt-glaze cupboard kilns giving place to much larger sagger ovens, in which the ware is now burned. The improvement in the . appearance of the ware having brought it into much greater demand, the works rapidly extended, until at the present time, in the Port Dundas Pottery with its branch work, the Crown Pottery, there are fifteen ovens in regular operation. The wares produced are beer, ink, and spirit bottles ; preserve, acid, butter, and druggist's jars ; chemical vessels and apparatus, and every kind of article made in stoneware, water filters, Rock- ingham and cane ware. All the goods made are stamped with the name of the firm in an oval stamp. The home markets are supplied with all descriptions of general ware, immense quantities of preserve jars, &c. Export bottlers in Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Liverpool, are supplied with stone bottles. Water filters, Rockingham, and cane ware are regularly shipped to the colonies and the continent of Europe. Two years ago a process of printing on the unfired stoneware body was per- fected and patented by this firm, eminently suitable for consumer's labels, trade marks, &c., no extra firing in the shape of muffle or hardening-in kiln being required. The Company exhibited their manufactures at the Chilian Exhibition held in Santiago in 1875, and there received the first prize gold medal for the general excellence of their wares. The clay from which this stoneware is made is obtained only from the Devonshire mines, is very free from iron, and burns a light buff colour. Somewhere about 10,000 tons are annually used in Glasgow, nearly the whole of which is brought by sea from the port of Teignmouth to the Clyde. Very little preparation and no mixing with other ingredients is required before passing into the hands of the workman ; after being milled it is ready to be fashioned into all kinds of articles. It is also singular in this respect that the articles are glazed before being burned ; and by one process of firing to a very high pitch of heat higher than that to which any other kind of pottery ware is subjected a hard, vitreous, and very sonorous ware is produced, glazed inside and out with a transparent glaze, which allows the buff colour of the clay to be seen, and which is quite proof against the action of both alkalies and acids, rendering vessels made by this ware highly suitable for storing and transporting acids and other chemicals. For many years London and Bristol were the chief seats of the stoneware trade, and workmen had to be obtained from the south to carry on business in Scotland ; but apprentices were speedily trained in Glasgow to supply all wants, and in turn to feed largely the southern potteries. At present there is more pure stoneware manufactured in Glasgow than anywhere else, so that it has really become the seat of the stoneware pottery of the kingdom. Hyde Park Potteries. This manufactory was established about 1837 by Mr. John McAdam. His productions are ordinary stone- ware bottles, jars, spirit casks, feet and carriage warmers, pans of various kinds, and all the ordinary classes of stoneware goods. Britannia Pottery. These large works at St. Rollox, Glasgow, belonging to Messrs. Cochran & Co., produce all the usual varieties of ordinary earthenware goods in granite and cream-coloured ware for South America ; and printed, enamelled, painted, and gilt wares for the home markets. The works were established in 1855, by Mr. Robert Cochran, the senior partner of the Verreville Pottery Company (which see), and the present partners are Mr. Alexander Cochran (son of the above) and Mr. James Fleming. The works contain six biscuit and seven glost ovens. Annfield Pottery. Messrs. John Thomson and Co., at the Ann- field Pottery, Gallowgate, formerly manufactured both china and earthenware goods for the home and foreign markets. The works have been closed some time. Bridgeton Pottery. The " Bridgeton Pottery " was built in 1 869 by its present owner, Mr. F. Grosvenor, who for some years previous to that time had been a partner in the "Caledonian Pottery" at Glasgow. The goods manufactured are the usual classes of articles in stoneware, including chemical wares, bottles for various uses, spirit jars, bottles, &c., and Rockingham ware tea-pots. In 1870 Mr. Grosvenor took out a patent for the manufacture of bottles and jars by machinery, and he has also invented an improved bottle stopper. Barrowfield Pottery. Established by their present owner, Mr. Henry Kennedy, in 1866, these extensive works produce in large quantities all the usual classes of articles of " glass-lined stone- ware," including "glass-lined bottles and jars" for domestic and other purposes, both for home and foreign markets. The mark used by Mr. Kennedy is three Bottles side by side beneath a ribbon bearing the words "Established 1866." COATBRIDGE. Glenboig Star Works. The Glenboig Star Fire Brick Works produce bricks, retorts, furnace-blocks and similar goods. Glenboig Fire-Clay Works. These works belong to the Glenboig Fire-Clay Company, and produce sewage and sanitary pipes, &c., retorts, fire-bricks, &c. Cardowan and Heathfield Works. The first of these works, belonging to Messrs. John Young and Son, was built in 1852 by Messrs. John Hurll and John Young, previous to that time of the Garnkirk Company. The clay is the Garnkirk seam, and is of much the same character as the Stourbridge clay. The Heathfield Works were acquired about 1860 from Messrs. Miller and Ferguson (which see), and were largely extended and altered, and improved machinery introduced. The clay was won at 350 feet, passing through a solid bed of freestone of 120 feet, giving off much water; the seam itself is known as the Glenboig seam of clay, as it was first wrought at the " Glenboig Works," with which Mr. Young was also till quite recently, a partner. At the "Cardowan Works" the firm manu- facture the usual varieties of fire-bricks, blast-furnace blocks, gas retorts and fittings, vases, garden edgings, and plain and ornamental chimney shafts. At the " Heathfield Works " they produce fire-bricks, and vitrified salt-glazed pipes for sewerage and water purposes, and invert sewer blocks and all the usual salt-glazed articles. In 1874 Messrs. Hurll and Young dissolved partnership; Mr. Young, along with his sons John and Robert, being now the sole pro- prietors. The product of these works when in full work is about 20,000 fire-bricks per day and about 1,500 yards of pipes weekly. PAISLEY. Ferguslie Fire-Clay Works. These extensive works were esta- blished in 1839, and are carried on by Messrs. Robert Brown and Son. The productions are mainly chimney shafts in great variety and of good design, sewage pipes and sanitary goods of all kinds, garden vases and tazzae, flower boxes, suspenders, fern and flower stands, &c. of various designs ; statuary, both single figures and groups, architectural enrichments, pedestals, brackets, garden edgings, fire and other bricks and tiles, copings, finials, &c. Shortroods and Caledonia Works. These are brick and tile works connected with the Ferguslie Works of Messrs. Robert Brown and Co. Paisley Earthenware Works. Messrs. Robert Brown and Co. established these works in 1876, and at them produce white enamelled earthenware goods of a similar quality to those of Stafford- shire. Their principal productions are cabinet stands and lava- tories of every requisite shape both for domestic and shop fittings, plug basins, pans, and other sanitary appliances, baths of every kind (a speciality being the larger baths, five feet six inches in length, a size rarely attempted in earthenware), washing tubs, sinks, &c., plumber's fittings, washhand-table tops, with and without toilet ware, plain and coloured pavement and wall tiles, &c. Crown Works. At the Crown Crucible Works, belonging to Messrs. Robert Brown and Son, plumbago crucibles and kindred goods are manufactured. The marks are a crown and name, BROWN PAISLEY, and a crucible within an oval border surmounted by a crown. GRANGEMOUTH. Fire-brick Works. These works, belonging to the Grangemouth Coal Company, were established in 1842. The clay, which is of good quality, is got at a depth of about forty-eight fathoms, under lease from the Earl of Zetland. The productions of the works consist of ornamental vases, and tazzse of various patterns ; statuary, both single figures and groups ; fountains, vases and plinths ; flower-stands and pots ; chimney shafts, some of which are highly decorated in relief; pedestals, brackets, &c. ; and salt- glazed pipes, grate backs, bricks, tiles, &c. The company received honourable mention for their goods at the Exhibition of 1851, and at the Hamburg Exhibition of 1866 had a medal awarded to them for their vases and ornamental figures. GREENOCK. The Clyde Pottery. The "Clyde Pottery" works were built and established by Messrs. James and Andrew Muir and others in 1815, and it is still the property of the Muir family, the present proprietors being the daughters of the late Andrew Muir. The business was first carried on by the proprietors under the style of the " Clyde Pottery Company," with Mr. James Stevenson as manager. Mr. Stevenson was succeeded in the management by Thomas Shirley, to whom the business was transferred, and who altered the name of the firm to Thomas Shirley & Co. In 1857 the Messrs. Shirley were succeeded by the " Clyde Pottery Company (Limited)," with James Brownlie as manager. This company acquired the ground adjoining the pottery known as the " Blubber Yard " (from the fact that formerly the blubber obtained at the whale-fishing was boiled there), and this piece of ground gave ample scope for extend- ing the works. The " Clyde Pottery Company (Limited) " existed for five years, and was then succeeded by the present firm, who carry on the business under the old style the " Clyde Pottery Company " and who, in taking over the lease, also acquired the ground adjoin- ing already referred to, and have extended the works so as to do double the business of any of their predecessors. The firm consists of three members John Donald, Robert Gibson Brown, and John McLauchlan the two last taking the active management of the concern. The goods produced are the ordinary qualities of cream- coloured, sponged, painted, printed, pearl-white, enamelled, and gilt, suitable for the home trade, and various kinds of ware also to suit particular foreign markets. The mark used upon goods is "C. P. Co." (Clyde Pottery Company). The markets supplied are the Home, Scotch, and Irish ; and considerable business is done abroad with Calcutta, Mauritius, Rangoon, Java, Newfoundland, and Canada. DUMBARTON. There were pot- works at Dumbarton in the latter part of last and the beginning of the present century. About 1800, or thereabout, Anthony Amatt, originally of Derby, and afterwards with Champion, of Bristol, worked at Dumbarton. He afterwards returned to Bristol, and died there in 1851, aged ninety-two. RUTHERGLEN. Caledonian Pottery. The "Caledonian Pottery" at Rutherglen, near Glasgow, was established at Glasgow about 1780 by a joint stock company, and from the company was acquired, about 1825, by the grandfather and father of the present head of the firm of Murray and Co., by whom the manufactory is carried on. In 1870 the works were removed from Glasgow to Rutherglen, about a couple of miles from that city. At first fine porcelain and china were made ; then cream-coloured printed ware, with Rockingham and salt-glazed wares. In 1851, the demand sprang up for stoneware ale and other bottles, and this has become one of the staple trades of Glasgow and the surrounding district. The goods now produced are the usual classes of " Bristol " glazed stoneware, salt-glazed stoneware, cane ware, and Rockingham and Egyptian black wares. In these classes of goods all the usual domestic articles are very extensively made, both for the home and continental markets. The quality produced is much above the average in excellence, and the goods of this firm are in much repute. A speciality of Messrs. Murray and Co. is their patent " spongy iron filter " which has been officially recommended by Royal Commission and has been awarded a medal. It is one of the most perfect and useful of filters, and its principle of construction is thoroughly good. The mark used by Murray and Co. is a lion rampant. Click here PORTOBELLO, NEAR EDINBURGH. Midlothian Potteries. The Midlothian Stoneware Potteries at Portobello and Musselburgh, near Edinburgh, were established about 1857 by Mr. W. A. Gray, for the manufacture of general stone- ware goods, but they had, I am informed by him, been in existence as earthenware works for upwards of a century before that time. They are now carried on under the style of " W. A. Gray & Sons." The goods produced are all kinds of stoneware, and the more ordinary descriptions of earthenware. In the first are all the usual descriptions of spirit jars and bottles, spirit barrels, bowls and pans, jugs and pitchers, butter, beef, and jam-pots, bottles, feet and carriage warmers, &c. ; and in earthenware many useful articles. They are principally supplied to the home market. 1870 - 1871 - W.A Gray - Midlothian Pottery, Yool's Place, Portobello. P 50 and Pipe Street, Portobello. P 62 and Newbigging Musselburgh. P 116 Portobello Pottery. These old-established works at Portobello, near Edinburgh, were established in 1770, and are now carried on by Messrs. A. W. Buchan & Co. For a number of years they turned out ordinary white earthenware and Rockingham ware, but since 1842 the manufacture has been entirely confined to stoneware. In this ware bottles of various kinds, jars, jugs, feet and carriage warmers, spirit bottles, and all the usual classes of goods, are extensively manufactured, principally for the home markets. The mark of the firm is a star. 1870 - 1871 - Murray & Buchan, Portobello Pottery. P 64 KlRKCALDY. Sinclairtown Pottery. Messrs. George McLachlan & Son were manufacturers of ordinary earthenware at this place ; the works are now closed. Other manufactories are, the Kirkcaldy Pottery belonging to Messrs. David Methven & Son, 1825 - 1826 - David Methven & Son, Brick and Tile Maker, The Links, Kirkcaldy and the Gallatown Pottery belonging to Messrs. Robert Heron & Sons. BONESS. The Boness Pottery, as it is now called, dates from 1766. It was originally planned and partly constructed by a Mr. Roebuck, an enterprising Englishman, largely engaged in the coal and iron trade in this district, who for some time lived in Kenneil House, belonging to the Duke of Hamilton. For some cause Mr. Roebuck left for England, and the pottery came by purchase into the posses- sion of a Mr. Cowen, and afterwards, in 1799 of Mr. Alexander Gumming, who carried it on successfully for a number of years ; then his nephew James Gumming carried on the business, and although it only consisted of three kilns it became one of the largest potteries in Scotland, if not the very largest. Earthenware and brown ware were manufactured in all their branches. The firm had another manufactory, called the " South Pottery," where brown ware was made for the home markets. In the possession of the present firm is a punch bowl manufactured in these works with the following inscription painted upon it : " What art can with the potter's art compare ? For of what we are ourselves of such we make our ware." It was made in the time of Thos. Cowen, and bears the date 1794. They have in their possession also other, but undated, specimens of the productions of the early manufactory. At the death of James Cumming the works passed into the hands of his nephew, William Gumming, and being sold in 1836 were bought by James Jamieson, and carried on for a number of years, under the firm of James Jamieson & Co., and afterwards by the son of Mr. Jamieson under the same style ; the proprietors being John Marshall and James Jamieson. After Mr. Jamieson's death that part of the works belonging to him was, in 1854, bought by Mr. John Marshall and carried on, on his own account, until 1867, when he was joined by Mr. William McNay as a partner, under the style of John Marshall & Co. These works were the first in Scotland to adopt Needham's patent for manufacturing clay. The productions are the ordinary useful classes of earthenware goods in dinner, tea, toilet, and other services, and all the usual domestic articles ; these are produced in white, sponged, printed, painted, enamelled and gilt styles, and are supplied both to home and foreign markets. PRESTONPANS. Prestonpans Pottery. There were, until 1838, two old potworks, each more than a century old, in Prestonpans ; in that year they were both closed. In 1836 Messrs. Belfield & Co. established the " Preston- pans Pottery," which they still carry on ; the goods produced being Rockingham tea-pots, cane jugs, &c. ALLOA. Alloa Pottery. These works were established in 1790 by Mr. James Anderson, and were afterwards carried on by Mr. William Gardner; in 1855 they passed by purchase into the hands of the present proprietors, Messrs. W. & J. Bailey. At first the works, under Mr. Anderson, produced common brownware pans and crocks, and by Mr. Gardner the addition was made of Rockingham ware tea-pots. By the present firm this branch of manufacture has been considerably improved, and so greatly extended that at the time I write, I am informed, no less than twenty-six thousand tea-pots can be produced by them per week. Majolica and jet ware goods are also largely made and are of good quality, and a speciality of the firm is its artistic engraving of ferns and other decorations of -the finer qualities of tea-pots, jugs, &c. The productions of the Alloa Pottery, besides a home trade, are exported in large quantities to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Germany, France, America, &c., and medals have been awarded to them at the Paris and Philadelphia Exhibitions. The excellent quality of the Alloa goods "arises from the nature of the clay got in the neighbourhood," and the density of colour and softness to touch of the glaze are highly commendable. THE HEBRIDES. Hand-made pottery is still made, and used, in all its primitive simplicity. The following letter, which I am permitted to print, is so full of interesting matter concerning this curious phase of fictile art, that I give it entire. It was addressed by W. Morrison, Esq., M.P., to my friend, Mr. W. H. Goss, and dated from the House of Commons. It runs as follows : "The circumstances under which I came upon the hand-made pottery were as follows. In conversation with a Scotch friend on archaeological matters, he happened to mention that hand-made pottery is still used in the Hebrides. Taken in connection with the fact that the inhabitants of some of the islands still, I believe, live in the same circular dry stone huts, with their cattle under the same roof, of which so many traces remain on Dartmoor, Ingle- borough in Yorkshire, the Yr Eifel Hills in Carnarvonshire, and with the curious speculations contained in the introduction to the popular tales of the West Highlands, by Mr. Campbell, this fact seemed to be of some archaeological interest. Mr. Tyler, in his ' Early History of Mankind,' gives many instances of the old savage instruments having lasted to our times, e.g., the flint knife used to cut cabbages by some old woman in Orkney, the bone ' barker ' from Cornwall, in Christy and Blackmore Museums, the stone hammer for breaking the shells of whelks in Brittany, and so on. " My friend gave me an introduction to Mr. D. Munro, the chamberlain of Sir James Matherson, Bart., at Stornoway, in the Lewes, and Mr. Munro promptly sent me a complete tea-service consisting of teapot, milk-jug, sugar-basin, slop-basin, egg cups (or probably dram cups), cups and saucers, and marmalade pot ! which he had purchased for the magnificent sum of ios. from an old woman at Stornoway, who was actually using them in the year of grace 1868 at her tea table. The pottery is evidently hand-made, and is of a very rough quality and form, baked, but not turned on the wheel. I gave half the set to the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury, and half to the Christy Museum, at 103, Victoria Street (visible on Fridays between 10 and 4 p.m. by ticket obtained at the British Museum ; no doubt a letter enclosing stamped envelope would save the trouble of an application to the British Museum). The pottery is in a case in the secretary's room. I am not sure if this room is shown to the public, but of course it would be shown to any one having an object in view. " The remarkable thing is, that the pottery is distinctly copied, rudely enough, from modern pottery. The forms are ordinary Tottenham Court Road forms, and their continued use in an island with a regular steamboat service from Glasgow strikes me as very curious. "Of course the view of the pottery is open to you, and all the information contained in this letter. I should prefer, however, not having my name published, unless to substantiate any statements I have made." Manufactories of brown ware, of delft, of common earthenware, and fire-clay goods, have also existed, or exist, in other parts of Scotland.