Heathfield Fireclay Works, Garnkirk, North Lanarkshire – History

Cardowan and Heathfield Works. The first of these works, belonging to Messrs. John Young and Son, was built in 1852 by Messrs. John Hurll and John Young, previous to that time of the Garnkirk Company. The clay is the Garnkirk seam and is of much the same character as the Stourbridge clay. The Heathfield Works were acquired about 1860 from Messrs. Miller and Ferguson (which see) and were largely extended and altered, and improved machinery introduced. The clay was won at 350 feet, passing through a solid bed of freestone of 120 feet, giving off much water; the seam itself is known as the Glenboig seam of clay, as it was first wrought at the ” Glenboig Works,” with which Mr Young was also till quite recently, a partner. At the “Cardowan Works” the firm manufacture the usual varieties of fire-bricks, blast-furnace blocks, gas retorts and fittings, vases, garden edgings, and plain and ornamental chimney shafts. At the ” Heathfield Works,” they produce fire-bricks, and vitrified salt-glazed pipes for sewerage and water purposes, and invert sewer blocks and all the usual salt-glazed articles. In 1874 Messrs. Hurll and Young dissolved partnership; Mr Young, along with his sons John and Robert, being now the sole proprietors. The product of these works when in full work is about 20,000 fire-bricks per day and about 1,500 yards of pipes weekly.

**********************

Heathfield Fireclay Works – This should be read in conjunction with the Cardowan Fireclay Company post.

Manufacturer(s): Peter Ferguson & Company (ca 1832-1845)

Ferguson, Miller & Company (ca 1845-1862) Robert Miller, Peter Ferguson (died 1855) and John Ferguson.

Hurll, Young & Company (ca 1862-1873)

John Young & Sons (ca 1873-1880)

Heathfield & Cardowan Fire Clay Company, Limited (ca 1880-1970)

Offices: 52 Robertson Street (1901-1918), 146 West Regent Street (1921-1936), 141 West George Street (1937-1963) Glasgow, Scotland.

Works: Heathfield, Cardowan, and Glasgow fire clay works, Garnkirk, Scotland.

Dates: ca. 1832 – 1970

The Heathfield site was continuously worked until 1970. Works noted as being mostly demolished by 1979.

Heathfield & Cardowan Fireclay Co., Ltd., Silica, and fire brick, gas retort, and sewerage pipe manufacturers; works, Heathfield and Cardowan, Near Garnkirk; offices, 141 West George St. C.2; Tel. No., Central 2537.

Heathfield Works, Lanarkshire – Ferguson, Miller & Co, Firebrick manufacturers, Moodiesburn.

Canmore

HEATHFIELD – Adjacent to Mark Sprot’s extensive fireclay deposits of Garnkirk were others owned by Dr James Jeffray of Cardowan, Professor of Anatomy at Glasgow University for the very long period 1790-1848.  In 1832 Professor Jeffray’s fireclay bricks were said to be “not let”, but soon afterwards a fireclay works was established at Heathfield by Peter Ferguson to make use of these minerals.  By 1834 Ferguson had a store at the Garnkirk & Glasgow Railway terminus at Townhead, Glasgow, for his Heathfield firebricks and tiles.  About 1846 the Heathfield’s firm’s name was changed from Peter Ferguson & Co. to Ferguson, Miller & Co.

Below – 26/11/1832  – The Glasgow Herald –  Heathfield Firebrick Works – an early reference.

26-11-1832 Heathfield Brick Works

1835 – 1836 – Peter Ferguson Fire Brick and Tile Works, Heathfield, Store Railway Depot. Letters left at J Ferguson’s 70 Hutcheson Street.

1836 – 37 – Peter Ferguson Fire Brick and Tile Works, Heathfield, Store Railway Depot. Letters left at J Ferguson’s 70 Hutcheson Street.

1841 – 1842 – Peter Ferguson, Fire Brick and Tile Works, Heathfield, Store Railway depot. Orders left at J. Ferguson’s, 17 Gordon St. Ho. Villafield Pl. p.88.

1843 – 1844 – Peter Ferguson, Brick and Tile Works, Heathfield, Store Railway Depot. Orders left at J. Ferguson 125 Buchannan Street.

During the early years the firm advertised only firebricks and tiles, but by 1852 the range was extended to include ornamental vases, chimney cans, flower pots, gas retorts, “furnishings of every description”, salt glaze, cane and Rockingham ware, “including every variety of pipes for the conveyance of water, and sanitary purposes-from one inch to eighteen inches diameter”, as well as firebricks and tiles.  The following display was mounted at the great exhibition of 1851, in London:

Copy of Warwick vase, in fire clay, with pedestal.  Exhibition vase, in fire clay, with pedestal.  Ornamental flower vase, with pedestal.  Specimens of ornamental chimney cans, in fire clay.  Variety of small models in fire clay.  Specimens of glazed stoneware pipes.

For this display, the Terra-cottas” jury awarded Ferguson, Miller & Co. a prize medal, appending this interesting comment:

“To Messrs Ferguson, Miller and Co … a Prize Medal has been awarded for sundry goods in terra-cotta, manufactured by them of fire-clay, and burnt at a high heat.  The fire-clays found in various parts of the coal measures are now much used for different purposes where refractory clay is required, and amongst the rest for ornamental vases, and figures for outside decoration in gardens, for which they form a good artificial stone, much superior to common stone.  The contraction that takes place in firing renders it somewhat difficult to model them with sufficient accuracy to ensure a satisfactory result, and this is especially the case where the form required is complicated and cut up into detail.  The present exhibitors have prepared some vases expressly for the Exhibition, and they have shown ingenuity in adapting the design to the material”

During the second half of the nineteenth century, Heathfield Works passed through several changes of ownership.  About 1862 it was taken over by Hurll, Young & Co. Of Cardowan Fireclay Works.

08/08/1850 – Stirling Observer – Highland and Agricultural Society’s Grand Show in Glasgow – For the best collection of glazed socketed pipes adapted for the conveyance of water, together with specification and specimens of the cement used in connecting them, 2 sovs, to Ferguson, Miller & Co, Glasgow.

10/08/ 1850– Bucks Herald – Highland and Agricultural Show Glasgow – Conspicuous this year are the productions of the Heathfield and Grangemouth Brickworks, the latter of which, besides some fancy articles has sent a collection of glazed tile pipes of all shapes and sizes.

18/10/1851 – Edinburgh Evening Courant – Great Exhibition – Crystal Palace – Prize – Ferguson, Miller & Co, Heathfield near Glasgow – vases in terracotta.

21/09/1853 – The Advocate / Irish Journal … Dublin Exhibition – the most conspicuous objects are … Messrs Ferguson and Millers fountain, 24 feet in height, is really a noble work. It was made at the Heathfield Works near Glasgow from the general design of Messrs Baird and Thomson, the architects, the figures being by Mossman, a Glasgow sculptor, and the ornaments by Mr J Steel.

1857 – Heathfield Works, Lanark. Ferguson Miller & Co, Manufacturers, Moodiesburn.

1858 – 1859 – Ferguson, Miller and Co. Firebrick and stoneware pipes makers, Heathfield. Office 206 Buchanan Street, Glasgow. (P103).

Below – 1858 – Heathfield Fireclay Works.

Heathfield 1858

09/06/1858 – Glasgow Herald – A man engulfed for a hundred and eight hours. – At Heathfield Fireclay Works, near Garnkirk, last Wednesday, at 12 o’clock midnight, James Templeton, one of the men employed in pumping water in the clay mine, observed, before leaving for supper, part of the debris of the superincumbent mass oozing from the roof of an old working at some distance from the place at which he had been engaged.  This circumstance he mentioned to his relatives when he got home.  His friends endeavoured to persuade him not to return; but he refused to listen to their remonstrance, remarking that “the break-down was far from the place where he worked, and even if there was a fall, he had an out gate.”  Accordingly, he returned to his work, and early on Thursday morning, when the miners arrived they found that a “sit” had taken place and that the working had been entirely filled up by the entrance of the mass, which was a peculiarly soft and quick nature.  they at once discovered that the unfortunate Templeton Millar, the proprietors of the works, on hearing of the occurrence, immediately ordered relays of workmen, who worked continuously in the endeavour to recover the unfortunate man.  After the most indefatigable and well-directed efforts for a period of 180 hours, they succeeded on Monday afternoon in finding their fellow-workman, to their astonishment, and, we may add, joy, still alive, though much exhausted.  Dr Oliver, who was in attendance, promptly and skilfully administered the necessary restorative, and we are happy to state that the sufferer is progressing favourably, and there is every prospect that he will be completely restored to his wanted health in a few days.  Templeton is a powerful, sinewy man, about thirty-six years of age.  Its will be remembered that only three weeks have elapsed since three men were buried alive in a neighbouring clay pit, who were recovered after having been fifty-nine hours enclosed in the bowels of the earth.  They are now well. Templeton’s case, however, is much more remarkable not altogether unprecedented.  he is not yet able to give a connected account of his sensations and sufferings during the dreary entombment, but he states that he endeavoured to keep the calculation of the time by feeling the hands of his watch.

Below – 28/09/1860 – Belfast Morning News. Ferguson Miller & Co, Terra Cotta Fire Clay Works.

Below  – 1861  – Advert Hurll and Young Cardowan Garnkirk.

Below – 1861 – Advert Ferguson and Miller Heathfield Glasgow.

1861 Advert Ferguson and Miller Heathfield Glasgow

Below – 06/08/1861 – Belfast Morning News – Advert. James McWade, Ballymacarrett, Belfast. Sole agent in Northern Ireland for fire clay goods manufactured by Ferguson, Miller and Co.

29/03/1862 and 28/05/1862 – Glasgow Morning Journal  –  Heathfield Brick Works for Sale – To be sold by public roup within the Faculty Hall, St Georges Place, Glasgow on Wednesday 28th May 1862 at 1 o’clock at the upset price of £3500. All and whole that piece of ground consisting of 2 acres, 1 rood and 30 poles imperial measure, part of the Lands of Baads lying in the Parish of Cadder and County of Lanark as the said piece of ground in particular described in the title deeds thereof, together with the whole buildings and machinery thereon, including the steam engines and grinding mills, conform to the articles of roup. The Heathfield Brick Works are situated within 200 yards of the Garnkirk Station of the Caledonian Railway and have been occupied for many years by Ferguson, Miller and Company. The landlord is willing to grant a lease of the Fire Clay to the purchaser on the same terms as the formerly held Messers Ferguson, Miller and Company with some trifling alterations. The quality of the fire clay is well known in the Glasgow market as very superior and the Works are at present in operation. For particulars apply to John Jeffray, Writer, 193 Vincent Street, Glasgow or to Mr William McCreath, Mining Engineer, 112 West George Street, Glasgow or Drumpark by Coatbridge. 07/05/1862

In 1873, however, this partnership was dissolved.  John Hurll moved to Glenboig to concentrate on his interests there, while John Young established the firm of John Young & Sons to take charge of Heathfield and Cardowan.  This firm, in turn, went into liquidation during the late 1800s and the works were purchased by John Faill of A.  & J.  Faill, Contractors & Quarry Masters, Glasgow.  Trading continued under the style of “Heathfield & Cardowan Fire Clay Co.” and the works were considerably extended.

06/09/1862 – Glasgow Morning Journal – In the sequestration of Ferguson, Miller & Co, manufacturers of fire bricks and stoneware pipes etc, Heathfield Works, in the Parish of Cadder and county of Lanark, and John Ferguson, manufacturer of fire bricks and stoneware pipes etc, Heathfield aforesaid, lately residing there and now manager, Llwynenion Works, Ruabon, Denbighshire and residing there and Robert Miller, manufacturer of fire bricks and stoneware pipes etc, Heathfield aforesaid and residing there, the individual partners of that company, as partners thereof, and as individuals.

Present Mr W.G.Lindsay, accountant, trustee; and Mr Archibald Ferguson, Writer, law agent in the sequestration.

Robert Miller one of the bankrupts deponed – I commenced business at Heathfield in 1845 in company with John Ferguson, my present partner and the late Mr Peter Ferguson, under the firm of Ferguson, Miller & Co. My department of the business consisted in attending to the counting-house, keeping the books and making sales. I contributed £250 as my share of the capital of the concern and the workable plant and machinery at the works was to be held as the share of the other partners. The works at the time of the partnership were formed were on a comparatively small scale. They were afterwards extended very considerably by the firm at the outlay of several thousand pounds. Mr Peter Ferguson died prior to our stoppage in 1855. The works were rented by the company from the late Mr John Ferguson, sen, as trustee, as I understand, for the late Mr Peter Ferguson, the father of the partner at a yearly rent of £250. After the firm stopped in 1855, we effected a private settlement with the creditors, for 5s in the pound and after this John Ferguson and I continued to carry on the works under the old firm.

I am now shown a statement of the company’s affairs. exhibiting liabilities to the amount of £6186 16s 5d, and assets to the amount of £471 14s 4d showing a deficiency of £5715 2s 1d. There was a balance in favour of the company, as shown by the balance taken in 1857 of £1690 13s 4d and I account for the deficiency and the loss of this balance since 1857 by a loss in conducting the business of £2253 3s 3d which comprehends what was sunk in the improvements of the works since January 1858; by old debts paid in full £880 18s 4d; by loss on consignments of sewage pipes to New York, £2565 9s 4d; loss of bad debts £1170 9s 9d; revised debts now ranking £350; accommodation and other bills ranked for, for which our firm got no value, £200; debts of John Ferguson jun, assumed by the firm, £67.

The bankrupt John Ferguson was afterwards examined and corroborated the statements previously made by his partner. This concluded the examination.

20/05/1864 – Glasgow Herald – James Merrie, contractor, Heathfield Brickworks pays David Gillespie and William McConnell or any of his men, daily or hourly if required.

Below – 02/03/1865 – Inverness Courier – Heathfield and Cardowan Fire Brick and Sewerage Pipe Works near Garnkirk. Advert Hurll, Young & Co.

1868 – Young and Co, Heathfield Brick Works, Moodiesburn, Glasgow.

1869 – Young John, Sons &, Co. (fire bricks) brands, Cardowan & Young’s, for chemical, glass, iron & copper roasting furnaces, the Siemens- Martin steel and every other description of furnace where excessive heat is required; gas retorts, chimney cans, glazed sewerage pipes, &c. (Illustrated sheets on application) ; office, 42 Bath St; works, Heathfield and Cardowan, near Coatbridge.

1870 – Invoices – Hurll, Young & Co, Heathfield and Cardowan Fire Brick Works near Garnkirk. Office 188 Buchanan St, Glasgow. Deport St Rollox. Manufacturers of sewerage pipes, fire bricks, gas retorts, ornamental chimney cans, flue covers, paving tiles &c.

1873 –  Young John, Sons &, Co partnership was dissolved.  John Hurll moved to Glenboig to concentrate on his interests there, while John Young established the firm of John Young & Sons to take charge of Heathfield and Cardowan.  This firm, in turn, went into liquidation during the late 1800s and the works were purchased by John Faill of A.  & J.  Faill, Contractors & Quarry Masters, Glasgow.  Trading continued under the style of “Heathfield & Cardowan Fire Clay Co.” and the works were considerably extended.

Below – 1875 – Advert – John Young and Sons, Heathfield and Cardowan.

1875 John Young and Sons, Heathfield and Cardowan

The firm continued operations at Heathfield Works for a large part of the twentieth century.  By the mid-1960s, when 90-100 men were employed, production was largely confined to sewerage pipes.  A speciality was made of large pipes, 15 in.,  18 in.,  21. In. and 24  in. diameter.  Fireclay was still obtained from a mine in the immediate vicinity of the works, where six workers each cut about 3-5 tons of clay per day, using Kango hammers.  This was loaded into hutches which were drawn on rails by a wire rope up a sloping shaft to the surface.  In 1965 Mr George Cleland, a former manager of the works, felt confident to make the following statement:

The clay is very suitable for large sewage pipes which are of a very high standard.  A large field of this clay is still available and is expected to last for many years … So the position is that Heathfield Works alone can look forward to the future with confidence, in the whole of that district so rich in Fire Clay 130 years ago.

His optimism was sadly misplaced.  By the end of the same decade, the firm was in liquidation and the works closed down.
Despite the Great Exhibition prize medal, Heathfield does not seem to have developed to any great extent as a manufactory for ornamental fireclay ware.  According to one account, the moulds for the Heathfield vases passed to the Garnkirk Company when the former works were taken over by Hurll, Young & Co.  This has led to some confusion about the origin of specimens of these designs.  During the period of ownership of John Young & Sons, there is evidence to suggest that any orders for industrial and utilitarian products.  Photographs among the papers of George Cleland, however, suggest that ornamental ware was manufactured, at least to a limited extent, at Heathfield during the early twentieth century (after the closure of Cardowan).  During the mid-1960s many moulds for balusters and vases of the Victorian era were still in existence at Heathfield, some of them used to fulfil the occasional order.

Source – Garnkirk Fire Clay by G Quail

18801882 – Invoice – Various invoices. John Young & Sons, Heathfield and Cardowan Fire Brick Works near Garnkirk. Office 188 Buchanan St, Glasgow. Deport St Rollox. Manufacturers of sewerage pipes, fire bricks, gas retorts, ornamental chimney cans, flue covers, paving tiles &c.

1882 – John Young & Sons. Firebricks brands – Cardowan and Young’s Glenboig for chemical, glass, iron and copper roasting furnaces, the Siemens-Martin steel and every other description of furnace where excessive heat is required; gas retorts, chimney cans, glazed sewerage pipes, &c. (Illustrated sheets on application). Offices 188 Buchannan Street.

1882 –  John Young, fire brick maker(John Young & Sons) Easter House, Ballieston.

Robert Young,  fire brick manufacturer (John Young & Sons) Whitehill Villa, Stepps.

John Young junior, fire brick maker ( John Young & Sons) Easter House, Ballieston.

1882 – John Young & Sons – Heathfield and Cardowan.

1882 – John Young & Sons. Firebricks brands – Cardowan and Young’s Glenboig for chemical, glass, iron and copper roasting furnaces, the Siemens-Martin steel and every other description of furnace where excessive heat is required; gas retorts, chimney cans, glazed sewerage pipes, &c. (Illustrated sheets on application). Offices 188 Buchannan Street.

Below – 23/05/1883 – Glasgow Herald  –  James Dunnachie and others V John Young & Sons – This was a court case initiated By Dunnachie following Mr Young, Heathfield Fire Clay Works stamping fire bricks ‘Young’s, Glenboig’ in 1882. Dunnachie claimed the word Glenboig was his trademark. Young claimed he used the word Glenboig not to gain by inferring his brick was made at the superior Glenboig fir clay works but because it used the same seam of clay at Glenboig.  The court found in favour of Mr Dunnachie and thus it would seem that the  Young’s, Glenboig stamp was only used between 1882 and 1883. (assuming Mr Young ceased to use it after the court decision).

Below – 01/05/1884 – Clyde Bill of Entry and Shipping list – Advert. John Young and Sons, Heathfield and Cardowan Works near Coatbridge.

26/01/1885 – The Scotsman – Glenboig Union Fire Clay Company Limited V John Young & Son. Another court case brought about by the Heathfield works using the Glenboig trademark. Heathfield appears not to have adhered to the Court’s decision in 1883 that they were wrong to use the Glenboig name.

Below – 09/09/1886 – Clyde Bill of Entry and Shipping list – Advert. John Young and Sons, Heathfield and Cardowan Works near Coatbridge – Young’s Sillica (Silica)

Below – 28/09/1887 – Falkirk Herald – Farm at Heathfield to let including the ground occupied by the Heathfield Fire Clay Works and the fire clay pits and railway and the feus.

Below – 16/07/1890 – The Scotsman – Heathfield & Cardowan Fireclay Company purchase the ‘Cardowan’ trademark from Young & Co and the court actions raised by both are dropped.

08/03/1893 –  Kirkintilloch Herald – The first social meeting of the employees of Heathfield and Cardowan Fireclay Works was held in the Drill Hall, Muirhead on the 28th …

Below – 08/03/1894 – Dundee Courier – Dundee Gas Commission accept tenders. Prices are given.

11/07/1901 – Dundee Courier  – The Glenboig Evictions – Dundee men to fill places. On Wednesday the miners resident at Heathfield, who have been out on strike, were evicted in a very quiet manner.  Mr Robertson, of Messrs Brownlee & Robertson, Sheriff Officers, West Nine Street., Glasgow, arrived at Heathfield and, proceeding to the Square, served warrants on Thomas Goodman, Terrance M. Creanor, local secretary of the Miners Union;  Wm.  Jardine,  Wm. McKeown,  John O’Bryne, and James Divine.  There was no appearance of any organised resistance, the houses in most instances being open, though in two cases the doors had to be smashed open with sledgehammers.  Superintendent Cook and a force of police were present, but their duties were so light.  Mr Graeme Hunter was also present and aided by the works manager, pointed out the respective houses to Mr Robertson.  A new feature in the dispute is the fact that Mr Hunter has secured all the houses of the convicted parties.  Those already secured have been furnished, and the men employed by him are lodged.  The houses at Heathfield will be furnished later.  The supply of labour at Glenboig, Garnqueen, Gartliston, Gartcosh, and Heathfield is to be regulated by Mr Hunter for a period of three years, and contracts between the parties have already been signed.  A number of workers are expected from Dundee.

1907 – Heathfield and Cardowan Fire Clay Co, 52 Robertson Street and 241 Glebe Street, St Rollox.

Below – 22/12/1909 – Kirkintilloch Herald – Theft of brass from the engineering shop at Heathfield Fireclay Works.
Below – 10/03/1911 – Milngavie and Bearsden Herald – Heathfield and Cardowan Fireclay Company agree to pipe clean water to their worker’s homes, albeit somewhat reluctantly!
03/05/1911 – Kirkintilloch Herald – Heathfield & Cardowan Fireclay Company Ltd agree to lay a 3″water pipe to Heathfield Square providing the District Committee lay the pipe from the main in Garnkirk Road to the boundary of their feu.

06/03/1912 – Kirkintilloch Gazette – Miners strike … The strike is having a serious effect on the other industries of the district, work having been suspended at the Heathfield and Cardowan Fire Clay Coy Ltd, Heathfield; The Glenboig Union Fireclay Coy Ltd at Gartcosh, Glenboig and Cumbernauld  and Messrs P & M Hurll’s Ltd, Glenboig

20/09/1915 – Dundee Courier – A fire in Glasgow causes £4000 worth of damage to various business including…. 52 Robertson Street, Glasgow occupied by the Heathfield and Cardowan Fireclay Co limited, suffered damage by fire and water.

Below – 01/04/1925 – Kirkintilloch Gazette – Fire breaks out at the mill room of Heathfield brickworks belonging to Heathfield and Cardowans Fireclay Co Ltd.

15/08/1930 – Kirkintilloch Gazette – The death of George Nicholl who had previously worked for 50 years at the Heathfield and Cardowan Fireclay Company Ltd as an engineer and works manager.

1968 – The Heathfield and Cardowan Pipeworks Ltd was bought by United Fireclay Products Limited – Source Kenneth Sanderson.
(The 1985 publication ‘A survey of Scottish brickmarks’ suggests that the works were possibly operated by United Collieries from 1911 – c.1947 and from c.1947 -c. 1965 by United Fireclay Products?).

*************************

July 1961 – Mr George Cleland Awarded M.B.E. Mr George Cleland. works manager of Heathfield and Cardowan Fireclay Co Ltd. Of Chryston, near Glasgow, was awarded the M.B.E. in this year’s Queens Birthday Honours List.Mr. Cleland. who is 81 years of age has been with Heathfield and Cardowan for 66 years and is retiring in September of this year. He started works in the office of the firm’s Cardowan works in December 1894 and was transferred to the Heathfield works about a year later.  He was appointed an assistant manager in 1910 and has been works manager since 1925. During his sixty-six years with Heathfield and Cardowan, Mr Cleland has seen many changes in methods of production and many changes in conditions and wages. In the 1890s bricks were all hand made, an average day’s work being 3,000 3 in. squares for a 10 1/4 hour day.  Hours of work were from 6.15 a.m till 1 p.m. An average week’s wage for a moulder was about 25s.  In those days too, all salt-glazed pipes were hand made faucets. Mr Cleland has always been confident that salt-glazed fireclay pipes would be preferred to concrete, even for the larger sizes and has been proud of the fact that Heathfield and Cardowan have always made all sizes up to 24in. diameter. The award of M.B.E. Is an honour of which Mr Cleland is very proud an is an honour which he feels that he shares with the industry, the firm, and the workers with whom he has been associated over the last sixty-six years.

Below – some images of salt-glazed pipes still in situ at the Heathfield Fire Clay Works.

.

.


.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Below – A metal gully cover at Station House, Muirhead marked Heathfield & Cardowan.

Below – An unmarked, glazed block. These were found at the Heathfield Fireclay Works and many had been cemented together. It was undoubtedly made on site.

Below – An unmarked salt-glazed saddle joint found at the Heathfield Fire Clay Works.

.

Below – Unmarked wall coping found on site.

.

Similar articles