This example was found by Graham Teede about 400m southeast of the old townsite of Kanowna east of Kalgoorlie, Australia. Graham states – Interestingly it was not near any other buildings as such which makes me think someone may have used it for a small furnace to smelt some gold. Although I’m sure there were fireplaces…
Some newspaper articles I find, are difficult to marry up with a relevant brickworks. In such cases, I record them here until I can confirm their relationship to a particular brickworks.
Below – 09/05/1743 – Caledonian Mercury – James Sutherland, merchant at the Timber-bush in Leith stocking tyles made in Aberdeen. (Note – SBH – Possibly Clayhills due to the early date?)
Below – 20/05/1776 – Caledonian Mercury – Bricks for sale at the sea lock or east entry of the new canal. (Note – SBH – I am uncertain if the first 3 lines of the article below are connected to the brick details).
Below – 09/08/1792 – Caledonian Mercury – Clay and sand to let at Prestonfield Meadows, Edinburgh.
22/05/1794 – Caledonian Mercury – Bricks – To be sold on the sea beach at St David’s Harbour, near Inverkeithing. About one hundred thousand bricks of excellent quality, fit for fruit walls, or any other sort of building. Apply by letter or otherwise to Alexander Christison at St David’s by Inverkeithing.
29/09/1796 – Caledonian Mercury – Bricks for sale – A considerable quantity of excellent bricks will be sold and shipped in the Great Canal, one English mile from Grangemouth or delivered in quantities of 10,000 and upwards at any place within the Firth of Clyde, on the most moderate terms. Apply to Mr Robert Allan, Sun Fire Office, Edinburgh; Mr John Hutton, Ropework, Leith; or Carron Shipping Company, Grangemouth. 27/09/1796.
13/09/1798 – Caledonian Mercury – Brick for sale at Stirling – About 0ne hundred and thirty or forty thousand new burnt bricks of the best quality, made by complete workmen from England will be sold to the highest bidders on Monday the 17th day of September current, at midday in one or more lots, on the field next to Craigs of Stirling – as also all necessary implements for a brickfield. For other particulars apply to Mr Hamilton of Inclosure or Alexander Littlejohn, a writer in Stirling. Not to be repeated.
24/12/1798 – Caledonian Mercury – Brick and Tyle ground to be let and all the utensils for making bricks to be sold. These two fields of fine clay and a barn ???? Craig’s of Stirling and close to the highway for a number of years as can be fixed. There are several thousand bricks on the ground of the ????? made last summer by hands from England which ??? may have to supply his customers till he makes ????. … ??? the proprietor’s Alexander Hamilton at ???
13/07/1799 – Caledonian Mercury – Wanted – a person who understands the making and burning of tiles and who could take the entire charge of conducting that manufacture – also a brick manufactory. None need apply but those who can be well recommended for their ability and knowledge in the business as well as for their honesty, sobriety and attention.
1803 – Reference to the village of Brickfield near Portobello.
09/08/1810 – Caledonian Mercury – Lands in East Lothian to be sold – The lands of Glasscoats and Rentonhall lying in the Parish of Moreham and County of Haddington. These lands are situated within about 2 miles of the town of Haddington and consist of 106 acres, Scots measure … The lands contain both coal and lime, a very fine white freestone and an abundance of excellent brick clay; so that besides possessing great means of improvement within themselves. their vicinity to the town of Haddington and the constantly increasing demand for freestone and bricks there will form a valuable addition to the yearly return from the property … Apply to William Scott, Moncrieff, accountant …
Below – 24/02/1812 – Caledonian Mercury – Land for sale at Gartcows, Falkirk. James Kincaid, proprietor… there is excellent clay in the lands for making brick and a brickwork might be carried on for many years without injuring the property …
17/06/1820 – Caledonian Mercury – The brick s making business is now extremely flat. There are thirty-five brick manufactories within about it two miles of Glasgow, of these only 10 are working and twenty-four are totally idle. Every field is supposed to produce 500,000 bricks yearly, consequently, there has been a falling off of 12,000,000 in the demand this year. The former summers making used to be all sold off by this time, but there is still on hand an average surplus of 100,000 to each field, though the bricks have fallen from 30s to 25s a thousand. The workmen’s wages have also been reduced from 1s 3d a thousand to 10d, the rate at which the making was paid about 24 years ago …
27/06/1825 – Caledonian Mercury – To Builders, brickmakers, and others. To be sold … All and whole that park or inclosure of ground with the dwelling houses thereon, lately occupied by Mr Aird and situated on the south side of Duke Street (Glasgow) and opposite the new houses lately erected by Charles Mackintosh, 2 acres … Contains clay and sand of excellent quality, for making bricks and tiles and in sufficient quantity to maintain 3 tables for a number of years. It is therefore peculiarly worthy of the attention of brick and tile makers … 14/04/1825.
07/04/1830 – Aberdeen Press and Journal – Farms to let in the Parishes of Marnock and Fordyce, County of Banff on the sequestrated estate of John Dawson … The farm of Redhyth lies little more than a mile from the town of Portsoy … A brick and tile works might be erected on this farm to an advantage … (Note – SBH – I do not think a brick and tile works was ever started here)
Below – 27/09/1839 – Brickfield in Paisley occupied by Mr Brassey, Railway Contractor for let.
Below – 18/02/1841 – Caledonian Mercury – Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland run a competition for anyone to write a report on the most desirous way to produce land drainage tiles.
Below – 19/01/1843 – Fifeshire Journal – New method for building chimney flues with brick.
14/02/1844 – Aberdeen Press and Journal – Subscriptions and reference to Mr William Smith, Manager, Brick and Tile Works, Aberdeen.
19/04/1845 – The Scotsman – Reference to Alexander Forrester brick and tile manufacturer, Bathgate with regards the new Uphall and Bathgate Railway Company.
11/07/1845 – Glasgow Herald – Ayrshire – Estate of Rosemount for sale – lying in the Parish of Symington, halfway between the towns of Kilmarnock and Ayr and by the present Glasgow and Ayr Railway within 2 hours drive of Glasgow and 4 of Edinburgh … There is a going tilework on the property and the tiles always find a ready market in the neighbourhood.
01/12/1845 – Glasgow Herald – Brick and Tile Work to Let – Fitted up last year under great advantages being the nearest work to the Port of Greenock and all the towns on the coast, beside a local sale which was so great last year that it could not supply. There is a railway to be commenced next year which will confer great advantages besides requiring a large quantity of bricks; it has a shipping place of its own at the work. As a whole, a work, with so many advantages is seldom offered. Apply to Mr Alex Wilson jun at Messrs Thomas Waddell & Co, 49 Virginia Street, Glasgow.
Below – 22/07/1846 – Dumfries and Galloway Standard – Reference to the Kirkbean Quit club and Mr J Anderson, tile manufacturer, Langlee (Could be Joseph Anderson from the Ryedale Brick and Tile Works).
20/03/1848 – Glasgow Herald – Land for sale in New Monkland and property at Parkhead … The lands of Bridgend belonging to Mr John Jack. The lands are of Inchnock and Gain and are called Bridgend … They extend to 20 acres and are about 8 miles east of Glasgow and are situated near to the Glenboig Station of the Caledonian Railway and are supposed to contain valuable minerals and fire clay …
31/03/1848 – Glasgow Herald – Sale of bricks – To be sold by public roup at the Pottery near Renfrew on Friday 7th day of April. 80,000 bricks of various kinds. To be put up in lots. Sale to commence at 12 o’clock. Renfrew 29/03/1848.
16/09/1848 – Perry’s Bankrupt Gazette – Under sequestration – Stewart and Mitchell, slaters and brick makers, Dundee.
Below – 17/09/1849 – Glasgow Herald – (Could this be an early fire brickworks situated at Drumpark?)
17/09/1849 – Glasgow Herald – An article about Glasgow in olden times … Glasgow Soapery, Candleriggs Street, Glasgow … I went through these works about 65 years ago … but what struck me most was a large pile of very fine fire bricks intended to be used in the constructing of the company’s furnaces … I enquired where the company got these bricks and was informed that they were imported from Holland. Now it is singular that Glasgow should at this period have obliged to resort to Holland for fire bricks when the city is surrounded on all sides with fire clay of the best quality and which at the above mentioned time might have been got for the trouble of carting away.
Below – 14/12/1849 – Glasgow Herald – Clayfield to let at Drumshanty, Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire. John and William Muir.
Below – 01/11/1852 – Glasgow Herald – Fire clay and clay seams at Easter Moffat, Parish of Shotts to let.
02/02/1855 – Kelso Chronicle – To brick and tile makers – for sale, a double-ended tile brick machine with X Dies of different dimensions, all got up in the newest style and best system for making and jointing drain pipes and tiles and common and hollow bricks. The above machine is guaranteed to make 14,000 2 inch pipes, 15inch long, with four men in 10 hours also 8,000 bricks with two men and two boys in one day – all of the first-class quality. Apply to John Robson, Millwright, Kelso.
30/04/1855 – Glasgow Herald – A brickfield to let with all the utensils for brick making, barrows, planks, etc. There is from 300,000 to 400,000 of clay raised and fields made ready to commence at once to brick making with comparatively little expense. For particulars apply to William Blackie, McNeil Street, Camlachie.
21/05/1855 – Glasgow Herald – For sale – Claytons clay preparing and solid brick making machines adapted for horse, steam or water power and capable of producing from 1300 to 2000 bricks per hour. Original cost £120; offered for £80. also for sale a brick pressing machine ( Clayton’s Patent) worked by hand and capable of throwing 3000 bricks per diem. Original cost £17; offered for £14. Both machines are as good as new, possessing all the most recent improvements and parted with on account of the owner having given up brick making. Apply to Mr Alexander Pattison, Mossroad Station, Govan, Glasgow 14/05/1855
11/06/1855 – Glasgow Herald – Clayfield to let near Glasgow, 20 feet thick. Apply Allan Cunningham at Duffs, 12 Stockwell.
Below – 25/06/1855 – Glasgow Herald – Brickfield to the West of Partick to let. MacSkimming.
29/06/1855 – Glasgow Herald – Brickfield to let – A going brickfield in the West End. Clay of the very best quality. Tools, stock and erections may be had at a valuation. Apply by letter addressed B.H.B Herald
07/12/1855 – Glasgow Herald – At Lesmahagow on Tuesday 18th December. Extensive and important sale of colliery equipment, fire brickworks, 3 steam engines, pit pumps, rails, fire brick engine and mill, fire brick, kilns, etc by auction. Particulars in catalogue to be had from Hutchison & Dixon, auctioneers.
14/05/1856 – Glasgow Herald – Wanted a partner who can advance £3000 to £4000 to join a respectable party in an extensive brick and pipe manufactory, both of fire and common clays, situated in the vicinity of Glasgow. The works are complete and capable of doing a first-class business with good returns. Principals only treated with. Address T.A.W., Herald Office.
12/12/1856 – Glasgow Herald – The whole coal, ironstone, fireclay, limestone and other minerals in the lands of Mossfield, New Mains, Muirparks and Porterfield, the property of the Community of the Burgh of Renfrew on lease for 21 years from Candlemas 1857. The land extends to about 400 acres partly bounded on the North West by the River Cart. They are intersected by the Paisley and Renfrew Turnpike Road and several Parish roads and are about a mile from the Harbour of Renfrew. The Paisley and Renfrew Railway passes through the lands of Porterfield.
02/01/1857 – Glasgow Herald – To let in East Hope Street, Camlachie upwards of an acre of clay ground for brick, first quality, 30 to 40 feet deep, easy entered within the Toll and conveniently situated for the Glasgow trade; also facility for working. Apply to Mr Walker, builder, Calton; Mr Brown, measurer, South Frederick Street or the proprietor A. Stewart.
16/01/1857 – Glasgow Herald – To brickmakers – For sale, a quantity of furnace goods, in good order and used for only about a year in a fire brick work and also a number of moulds and other material. Apply to Robert Sandilands and Sons, Lintfield Bank, Lesmahagow.
02/03/1857 – Glasgow Herald – To Brickmakers – Wanted by the 1st of March, an experienced brick and tile burner to whom liberal encouragement will be given. Apply to William Brown, Brick and Tile Works, Auchterarder. 30/0/1857
16/03/1857 – Glasgow Herald – To Brickmakers – Wanted a person qualified to burn common brick and take charge of a brickfield. A married man from the country preferred. None need apply but such as can be recommended for sobriety and honesty. To one properly qualified person, liberal encouragement will be given. Letters addressed “Brickmaker” Herald Office will be attended to. Glasgow 14/03/1857.
Below – 15/07/1857 – Glasgow Herald – Brickworks for sale at 232 Duke Street, Glasgow.
1858 – Mineral Statistics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for 1858 – A kiln exists at Foxside Hill, Portobello and bricks and tiles &c are manufactured there.
13/04/1858 – Greenock Advertiser – Brick for sale – To be sold on Thursday, 15th April by Public Sale at the Green adjoining Rutherglen Quay, 2 miles from Glasgow. Three kilns containing 200,000 new brick. They lie very convenient for carriage by the river and are consequently particularly suitable for parties intending to erect buildings in its vicinity or at the coast. Walker’s omnibus leaves the Cross at 2 o’clock. Sale to commence shortly after its arrival. Peter Burn & Co, Auctioneer. Glasgow 10/04/1858.
20/07/1858 – Glasgow Morning Journal – Sales today – Bricks. Half-past one – Carntyne Brickfield – Hutchison & Dixon (Auctioneers)
21/07/1858 – Glasgow Herald – I hereby give notice that I pay my men their wages daily or hourly if required. Robert McLay, brickmaker, 58 Cavendish Street, Glasgow. 20/07/1858.
1858 – 1859 – Alexander Murray – Agent for Ferguson Miller & Co Firebrick makers. (page 204).
Below – 08/08/1860 – Glasgow Herald – Plant, machinery and clay field for sale in the East End, Glasgow.
21/12/1860 – Glasgow Herald – To be let – Several very eligible sites for Public Works, such as malleable iron foundries, brick and pottery works etc, coal, iron, building stone, common and fire clay of excellent quality are produced and worked on the estate which is intersected by the Caledonian Railway and by which direct communications is had with the East, West, North and South districts of Scotland and with the North of England. For particulars apply to Mr Miller, Factor on the Wishaw Estate and Mr Robertson, civil and mining engineer, 116 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. Wishaw 18/12/1860.
Below – 17/04/1861 – Brickworks near Aberdeen to let.
12/06/1862 – The Scotsman – Glasgow Agricultural Society Show – Alexander Murray, Glasgow exhibited a very good collection of fireclay pipes, troughs, mangers, vases, flower stands etc which were highly commended and a bronze medal awarded. (Note SBH – J & M Craig had an agent called Alexander Murray. One of the same? 1869 – J. & M. Craig Manufacturers of fire & enamelled bricks, sewerage pipes & all kinds of sanitary & plumbers’ earthenware; works, Hillhead & Perceton Fire Clay Works, & Longpark Pottery, Kilmarnock—Alexander Murray, 98 Commerce St. S S, agent)(and is this entry also connected. 1897 Murray and Stewart, brickmakers, 98 Commerce St, Glasgow).
29/07/1862 – The Scotsman – The Edinburgh Deport for common clay and fire clay goods, Bread Street and Spittal Street Edinburgh – stocking Italian glazed and unglazed double-barrelled sewage pipes.
10/01/1863 – Ayrshire Express – Brick and drain pipes of various sizes can now be had at moderate prices at Craigie No 1 Pit, Mainholm Road ( south of Kilmarnock) or at the depot, Head of Content Street. Craigie House Colliery. Ayr 24/12/1862.
14/01/1863 – Glasgow Herald – To let Whinstone Quarry of excellent quality and large extent. A field of brick and tile clay; also pit and machinery for raising fireclay which is of good quality about 4 foot thick and 4 miles distant from Glasgow close by the side of the canal.
14/01/1863 – Glasgow Herald – Brickfield to let. The Brickfield in Foundry Open, Gallowgate (Glasgow) within a mile of the Cross, as at present occupied by Mr Robert Barr. Apply to Mr McCasland, Gartcraig by Shettleston or to Mr Peter Shannon, builder, no 105 Stockwell Street.
10/08/1863 – Glasgow Herald – Rock and clay to let – The rock and clay on the lands of North Woodside, part of former being fine white rock and the latter suitable for brick making and pottery purposes. Particulars will be given and offers received by William Cowan, Accountant, 64 St Vincent Street, Glasgow.
07/10/1863 – Glasgow Herald – To brickmakers – for sale, several thousand tons of stuff suitable for making composition bricks of the very best quality. It lies convenient to the Union Canal and a regular supply of the same article can be supplied.
02/12/1863 – Glasgow Herald – To brickmakers – For sale on moderate terms, a large quantity of fire clay shale, suitable for making composition bricks with easy access to the Caledonian Railway. (19/10/1863 refers to blaise).
15/07/1864 – Glasgow Morning Journal – Pollokshields Indignation Meeting. A meeting took place on Wednesday night, in the Bowl house, presided over Councillor Wm. Wilson, to take measures to put down the brick-working, and another contemplated nuisance in the neighbourhood, and to bear a report of what the committee had already done. The chairman made a statement to the effect that the small piece of ground lay between the canal and the railway at the east of the junction, and was only accessible by overcrossing of the line. When the Greenock line was constructed, the Company paid for what ground they required a rate agreed to and made compensation for the damage done to the small portions (about three acres?) on the south side. A brickwork has been commenced, and the nuisance from the kilns is likely to seriously affect the value property in the district unless speedily put down. It was stated that the party making the bricks has a vitriol work in contemplation. It was further stated that as many trains pass and repass this crossing daily, and that 200 carts have gone across the line in a day the wonder no accident has taken place. The Board of Trade’s attention to this will, it is hoped, compel the purchaser of the ground to put a man in charge of the gate, and not leave it to the care of a person who has other duties perform. Some strong language expressed that the owner of the ground bought it as a speculation, and, to compel the feuars at Pollokshields to make a purchase, began to make bricks, and threatens something worse. As the feuars have no use for the ground and have no access it (it being the other side the canal), they will not buy it and as an expression of their feelings (if they must go to law) subscribed £1000 on the spot to carry it the highest court. A committee was at once formed to watch the case. (Note – SBH – So which brickworks were these!).
12/04/1865 – Bricks contractors – wanted contractors to make half a million bricks from clay already prepared. The Field may be thereafter let for a brick and tile work if desired for which the material and locality are well adapted. Particulars to be got at Westwood, West Calder.
Below – 17/04/1865 – To let several large and extensive waste hills in connection with a colliery …
Below – 17/10/1866 – Aberdeen Press and Journal – early use of cored or perforated brick – Cairnton Tunnel, Aberdeen.
04/09/1868 – Glasgow Evening Citizen – Brick and tile works to let – To be let in the immediate neighbourhood of Paisley, a brick and tile work. The clay in the lands is abundant and of first-rate quality. Apply to Mr Cameron, 13 Queen Street, Glasgow.
14/10/1868 – The Scotsman – To be let, the coal, shale and fireclay on the Estate of Firth, in the Parish of Lasswade. An analysis of the parrot coal and shale has been procured and will be shown and further information given by Mr John T Mowbray, W.S, 15 Albany Street, Edinburgh. John Davidson, the gardener at Firth House by Roslin will show the field.
17/02/1869 – Glasgow Herald – For sale at valuation. First-class brick and tile work (30 years established) with stock, engine, machinery, plant etc. Nine years of lease to run. Situated about 200 yards from Bishopton Station and nearest Greenock of kind. A rare opening. Apply to Messrs Lang, 34 North Albion Street, Glasgow.
Below – 05/03/1869 – The Scotsman – No one need apply who is in the habit of getting on the beer …
17/05/1873 – Hamilton Advertiser – Trade outrage – 3 brickmakers are in custody at Gorton on a charge of having been concerned in an infamous outrage at that place. On Saturday afternoon 40,000 bricks in the yard of a firm who only employ non-union men were trampled upon and spoiled.
Below – 09/08/1873 – Falkirk Herald – Minerals to let including clay on the Estate of Garbethill. William Torrance, Garbethill House will point out the boundaries. (Note – SBH – I am uncertain if a brickworks was ever erected in respect of the clay. Is William Torrance the same gentleman that operated various brickworks including Camps Brickworks)?
23/08/1873 – Falkirk Herald – Pollution of Scotch Rivers – Basin of the Forth, Linlithgow. Evidence of Mr James Ross, Paraffin Oil Manufacturer, Falkirk, Stirlingshire. My works are situated on a small stream, a tributary of the River Carron … We produce nearly 5000 tons of spent shale, which is stored in heaps to be made into bricks as soon as practicable …
24/04/1874 – Glasgow Herald – Bricks (Composition) of good quality and at a moderate price, at Clydesdale Ironworks, Holytown.
05/09/1877 – North British Agriculturist – Article about Texas, USA … I have seen bricks used that had come from Scotland, having an Ayrshire man’s stamp upon them …
07/03/1879 – The Scotsman – Brickwork – To let on lease, brickwork near Edinburgh constructed to make 16,000 to 20,000 brick per day. The engines, grinding mills, drying sheds and kilns are of the best description and specially designed to save hand labour and to economise fuel. There is a large field of lay adjoining the work and railway siding and connections to the various parts thereof. The use of a locomotive can also be provided. For further particulars apply to ‘S’ care of Keith and Co, 65 George Street, Edinburgh.
14/03/1879 – Glasgow Herald – Brickfield to let at Springburn with an engine, pans and whole necessary machinery and plant in good working order.
Below – 03/09/1879 – Glasgow Herald – Brickwork in the Airdrie area for sale or let.
26/01/1880 – Glasgow Herald – Partner wanted with £1000 to work a valuable clayfield in Dumbartonshire adapted for drainage pipes, bricks or pottery ware. Address 8459, Herald Office.
08/04/1880 – Ayr advertiser – Members of the Free Assembly for Presbytery of Ayr – Elders … Mr Robert Hill, brick manufacturer, Dalmellington.
19/05/1880 – Glasgow Herald – Brickfield to let withing 2 miles of the Exchange. The field contains clay of excellent quality, and being bounded by good roads and having a railway siding, is most advantageously situated for the purpose. Immediate entry can be had. Apply to J.M and J.H Robertson, 44 West Regent Road, Glasgow.
27/03/1886 – Paisley and Renfrewshire Gazette – Deaths. At Philadelphia, U.S on the 3rd inst, John T McInnes aged 58 years, brick manufacturer, a native of Paisley.
Below – 31/03/1888 – York Herald – New Ganister Brickworks.— The works of the Scotch Fire Brick Company on the Marshes at Middlesbrough have been sold to Messrs. J. Grayson Lowood and Company, of Sheffield, and will in future be carried on as the Lowood Wharncliffe Ganister Brickworks. The material from which the silica bricks for steelworks will be made will be brought in its raw state from Messrs. Lowood’s Wharncliffe collieries at Deepcar, near Sheffield.
18/09/1896 – Glasgow Herald – The valuable mineral and agricultural Estate of Cleland will be exposed to a public sale … The Estate is situated in the Parishes of Bothwell and Shotts … The mineral field which contains the well known Lanarkshire seams of coal, ironstone, shale and fireclay is – with the exception of a small area – at present let to several tenants. There are a number of fireclay heaps suitable for brick making. Bricks of good quality have already been manufactured from former heaps …
04/08/1899 – Glasgow Herald – Wanted – Salesman – active and steady, with some connection. Wanted for sale of fire clay bricks; Liberal encouragement to a first-rate man. Address with certificates …
11/09/1889 – Glasgow Herald – Fireclay and mineral field to let. Dalnair, adjoining Greenhill and Bonnybridge Stations intersected by the Caledonian and North British Railways and Forth and Clyde Canal, extending to about 70 acres. The field is in the Bonnybridge Fireclay and Ganister district.
18/06/1890 – Coatbridge Express – The huge hill of ” blaze ” at Kelvinside, and which was the subject of prolonged litigation, is to be removed. Mr Fleming, the proprietor, has just entered into an advantageous contract with a firm who propose making bricks from the waste material. There may now be some hope of numerous localities in the Monklands being speedily relieved of these terrible “blots” on the otherwise beautiful landscape. If the contracts can be “made to pay,” verily, “mountains may be removed!”
16/03/1892 – Glasgow Herald – Wanted, managing partner with a few hundred pounds of capital, and having experience of fire brick manufacture to take up a deceased partner’s share in a gannister and fire clay business in Stirlingshire. Party with knowledge of glazing fire clay goods will be preferred.
26/04/1894 – Aberdeen Evening Express – A man has been swindling some Glasgow householders by delivering a brick neatly wrapped in paper, which he says has just come by railway and lifting the carriage money. The sum which he realises in this way ranges from 1s to 2s 9d.
15/09/1894 – St Andrews Citizen – Cast-iron building bricks. While I was in Germany last year,” said traveller, “ I came across several walls surrounding some of the public institutions that were constructed out of cast-iron bricks. These bricks certainly have many advantages over the old-fashioned clay bricks, though they may not prove to be superior in all respects. In form and size these bricks resemble our ordinary bricks, but they are composed of cast-iron and hollow. The shell is so thin that the brick weighs less than the one made of clay. A wall is built of such material without the use of mortar, and no skilled labour is required laying them. The upper and lower sides of the bricks are provided with grooves and projecting ribs, which fit into each other easily and perfectly and form a wall of great strength. There are also two large circular openings in the upper side of each brick, arranged so as to receive projections on the lower side of the brick that is to be placed above it. One of the projections is hook-shaped, which secures a solid hold. A wall of these bricks is put together very quickly. After the wall is built it is covered with paint. This closes all the cracks, rendering the wall air-tight, and prevents the bricks from rusting. The bricks are very durable, and a building constructed them would be practically fire-proof.
24/12/1894 – Glasgow Herald – Fall of a factory at Lochwinnoch. Viewfield Chair Works … Started 12 years ago and devoted to making chairs … In August 1893 Mr Joseph Johnston, owner had the misfortune to have his premises destroyed by fire but within nine months the burnt building had been replaced by another structure, the greater part of which has now unfortunately fallen before the gale which has spread so much destruction throughout the country … the large new building was constructed of fireclay bricks laid double and joined to each with cement and lime …
20/03/1895 – Falkirk Herald – …and seconded by Patrick Cassidy, brickmaker, Bonnybridge …?
1896 – 1897 – James Aitken, Brick maker and builder, 184 Hospital Street, Glasgow.
09/01/1897 – Dundee Advertiser – Cork Pavement for the Waverley Station. The contract for paving 3000 yards of the new Waverley Station has been given to the Cork Pavement Company, London, who four years ago laid the pavement of the Caledonian Station, Edinburgh, with their cork bricks. It is claimed for these bricks that they render the traffic noiseless, never become slippery, and are inodorous.
31/03/1897 – Dundee Courier – Cupar (Landward) … reference to George Smith Jun, brick and tile works … ?
03/06/1899 – Airdrie and Coatbridge Advertiser – An article on Airdrie Town Council voting to use metallic brick paving for pavements instead of concrete.
23/10/1899 – Glasgow Herald – Clayfield to let, most favourably situated for markets having direct railway communications and close to a large town in the coal and iron districts. Abundant supplies of material for agricultural drain pipes, common and composite bricks and fire clay goods. For particulars apply to Mr Robert Frew, mining engineer, 75 Bath Street, Glasgow.
Below – 27/12/1899 – Glasgow Herald – Scottish fire brick exports 1899.
11/05/1900 – Glasgow Herald – Salesman – Young man to represent Brick Work: Salary or Salary and commission. State Terms
06/06/1900 – Glasgow Herald – For sale or to let – Brickwork for sale in East End of Glasgow within City boundary, in first-class order. Ralston double brick making machine, drying stove for 55,000 bricks, Hoffman 12 chamber kiln. Moderate Lordship. Might be let on lease to a suitable tenant. Apply to Cadell & Simmers, Chartered Accountants.
10/08/1900 – Glasgow Herald – Brickwork for sale. Sound profitable concern, turning over 4 million bricks last year. Improved machinery plant. Decided good opening. Apply D. Alexander, 82 West Nile Street.
09/04/1902 – The Scotsman – Small colliery with a seam of first-class fireclay in the West of Fife for sale by private treaty. That small colliery with a seam of first-class fireclay situated on the lands of Whitefield near Dunfermline. together with the steam engine, boiler, winding gear, and whole working plant in and above the colliery. The field extends to about 80 acres. The coal and fireclay are worked together, and bricks and other fireclay products, of the finest quality, could be manufactured on the ground. A branch of the North British Railway passes close by the pit and a connection therewith could be got for a small outlay. To small capitalists, an opportunity such as this seldom occurs. Further particulars may be obtained from and offers to be lodged with, the Subscriber on or before Monday 14th April curt. J . R . Stevenson, solicitor, Dunfermline.
11/10/1907 – Linlithgowshire Gazette – It is really amusing what one reads sometimes. I read two weeks ago a doleful report of the decadence of Armadale Brickworks. They were be closed the following week, and again last week I read there was no help for it, all the hands were to have been paid off last Saturday, but what should I find on making enquiries at the works to learn the truth of this report? Why, the works were more active than ever, and extra hands were being engaged to cope with the demand. Instead of the works being closed for want of orders, the likelihood is that they will have to work overtime to meet the demands.
24/01/1908 – Linlithgowshire Gazette – I heard this week from one of our Scots abroad, who seems to be getting on all right, and keeping up the honour of the dear old country. I mean Mr Daniel Black, who went out to La Prairie, in the Province of Quebec, Canada, in the spring last year. Dan is engaged in a large brick-field, where twenty-two burners are employed, and an offer of 30 dols. being given as a prize by the employer to the burner who turned out the most bricks in a given time, the prize fell to the Armadale man and his neighbour. Good for Dan.
09/05/1919 – West Lothian Courier – Minerals to let. The minerals in an area of about 500 acres of which the Armadale seams are partly worked. The Wilsontown seams are unworked. Excellent railway facilities. Also to sell or let, several large bings of blaes, well adapted for the working of bricks. Free sites for brickworks will be granted. Railway accommodation is good. For further particulars apply H. Smith, W.S.. 5 South Charlotte Street, Edinburgh.
19/10/1920 – Edinburgh Gazette – South Ayrshire Brick Company Limited (In liquidation). Notice is hereby given, in pursuance of Section 195 of the Companies (Consolidation) Act, 1908, that a general meeting of the company will be held within this office, 107 West Regent Street, Glasgow, on Monday, 22nd November 1920, at two o’clock afternoon, for the purpose of having an account laid before the meeting showing the manner in which the winding up has been conducted and the property of the company disposed of, and to hear any explanation that may be given by the liquidator. Rowley, Orr, Lamond, & Co., Agents for liquidators. 107 West Regent Street, Glasgow, 18th October 1920
Below – 04/03/1922 – Falkirk Herald – The brick industry. Trade prospects improving. Trade Prospects Improving. Prospects of improvement in the brick-making industry were spoken of at a dinner attended by members of the Scottish Employers Council for the Clay industries in the Central Station Hotel, Glasgow, on Wednesday night, at which Mr John G. Stein, president of the Council, presided. The hope was expressed that the present depression would pass within a few months. Provost A. Frew, in proposing “The Clay Industries,” said he would like to impress upon them the great importance of their ancient industry. It was in existence before the Pharaohs, and it had survived the fluctuations both of time and trade and was as much alive today as ever. As regard the building brick section, there was doubt that during last year they had had the most unprecedented experience, but, though that was to his mind long overdue, it had not continued very long. Those of them associated with the industry knew full well that for many years previous to that they had a most depressing and hard time, but the great demand for housing had given a fillip the brick building industry. Brickmakers could not be termed rapacious. Few of them were money grabbers. Every one of them would like to see their employees getting a fair living wage, and at the same time have a small margin of profit for themselves to recompense them for their labour and capital. Things were perhaps on the wane, and it was up to them to exercise foresight and economy to cut down costs. Effects of pre-war legislation – The president, acknowledging the toast said that when Babylon was built it was of brick, and there was no word of ferroconcrete or other substitutes. These bricks were as good today as when they were made. If brickmakers would try to make the best bricks in Britain he was sure they would meet with financial reward. The present condition of the industry was rather depressed, but the prospects were not bad. They had no bugbear of idle houses as shipbuilders had of idle ships in Gareloch, but ill-conceived legislation of 12 or 13 years ago had practically killed private enterprise in building. There were very hard times before the war and in the early years of the war, but they had come into their own for a short period, and, looking forward, he hoped that before many months were past they would get their turn again. There was one favourable element that the cost of building materials was not affected by the exchanges. The effect of unfortunate legislation had been deplorable, and since the Armistice, although there were 10 years arrears of building, no more houses had been built than were necessary for ordinary requirements. If some of that legislation had been taken off promptly and the Rent Restrictions Acts cancelled or expanded private enterprise would have stepped in, and we would have had infinitely more houses and very much cheaper and better houses.
16/06/1922 – Bellshill Speaker ( Note – SBH – I have recorded this for interest’s sake). In 1633 the first American brick buildings in America were built on Manhattan Island by a governor of the Dutch West India Company. For a long time before that Holland had been famed for the high quality of its bricks, and Dutch bricks were imported for these American building’s. For many years bricks were taken into America from England and Holland. Burnt bricks were first made in America in New Haven, the largest city in Connecticut, about the year 1650, and although the manufacture spread slowly through the states of New England, the European article was for a long time far superior to the home-made article.
14/04/1923 – Falkirk Herald – Problems re the state of the roads … A suggestion subsequently put forward by Dr Griffiths, however, was of more than ordinary interest, holding forth a prospect of a real and very desirable remedy being effected in the treatment of the roads themselves. His suggestion was that the committee might experiment in a small way with brick-paved roads, for which many attributes were claimed. Indeed, from all that was brought to light concerning this method of road treatment, brick surfacing would appear to provide the ‘perfect’’ road, above all lessening considerably the cost of maintenance. Whether or not the brick-surfaced road would justify all the claims made in its favour, it would seem at least to be worthy of the suggested trial. An improvement on present methods is unquestionably a thing to be much desired, and any opportunity of effecting that improvement should not be allowed to slip.
27/06/1923 – The Scotsman – Brickworks for sale – For sale as a going concern, modern brickwork, in close proximity to Glasgow, favourably situated for supplies of blaes, fuel, &c; railway siding into works; plant includes one Bradley & Craven machine, pan mill, &c: an electrically driven battery of 11 improved Hoffmann kilns; all in first-class condition. Address “Brick” Wm. Porteous & Co., Advertising Agents, Glasgow.
23/01/1929 – Leeds Mercury – Scottish Fireclay, Silica and Ganister Field. To Let. Minerals on Lochgreen Estate. Bonnybridge, containing 600 acres Glenboig and Castlecary fireclay and silica seams, moderately shallow, and approx. 200 acres of Bonnybridge Fireclay and Ganister seams, which outcrop together with Millstone grit coals, situated midway between Castlecary and Bonnybridge and marching with minerals field held by Steins’ at these places. Near two main railways and electric power line. Full particulars from William Welsh, Bonnybridge, Stirlingshire. (Note – SBH – I do not think any new works were started up on this land but perhaps and existing and adjoining property took on the rent of the land).
24/10/1929 – Kilmarnock Herald – … Fire brick surface. Another experiment which has been carried out at three points near Kilmarnock is the laying of vitreous fire-clay bricks. The brick roadway, of course, has been in America for many years and has also been introduced in certain districts in England with varying degrees of success. In the course of an interview Mr James Lang, County Road Surveyor at Kilmarnock, stated that he had found the surface highly satisfactory. The first test of the fireclay bricks was made on the Kilmarnock – Troon road six years ago, and the section has neither been renewed nor repaired since. So successful did the bricks prove in preventing skidding that a section of the Kilmarnock – Glasgow road, where it sweeps in a curve past the road leading to Eaglesham was also paved with fire-clay bricks, and since the alteration, no skid has been known to occur at that point. Encouraged by this further proof of the effectiveness of the brick in making for road safety, the authorities recently adopted brick paving for a somewhat dangerous corner in the Kilmarnock – Hurlford road. In each instance, the results have been satisfactory. The bricks used for paving purposes are baked harder than the fire clay brick in order to bear the stress of all kinds of traffic. They are laid on a concrete foundation and grouted with bitumen filler. The bitumen knits the bricks into a solid surface which in all weathers affords an excellent grip for tyred wheels. The cost of constructing a brick surfaced roadway is about 17s per square yard which includes the cost of the concrete foundation. This no doubt is somewhat expensive but if safety is to be achieved by a general adoption of the practice on all important roads the expense would surely be justified. Lengthy stretches of brick are not necessary as are the areas at dangerous bends and cross-roads. It is perhaps not surprising that the experiments with the fire clay brick should have been carried out by the Ayrshire authorities because their ordinary road schemes are conducted with remarkable economy. It is stated that the authorities are able to put down a tarred metal road covered with bitumen for between 6s and 7s per square yard and a tarmacadam road flushed with a sealing coat of bitumen and chips for 3s 6d per square yard …
10/05/1933 – The Scotsman – Clayfield – large area blue and other clay, tested out to make extra good red brick and tiles. Excellent opportunity for Company starting a brickworks, Edinburgh District.
19/06/1934 – Fraserburgh Herald – Bricks for new houses. The SS Kyle Rona arrived with 350 tons of bricks. Since the start of the new houses, a dozen cargoes of Ayrshire bricks have come to Fraserburgh.
12/01/1935 – Larne Times – Boy crushed to death – Nicholas Connell of High Bonnybridge, a 15-year-old boy, was crushed to death in a powerful clay crushing machine at a Stirlingshire brickworks. He was drawn in between two pinion wheels forming part of the machine and crushed before it could be stopped.
Below – 06/03/1937 – Falkirk Herald – Heathfield, Thistle and Bathville bricks for sale.
Below – 25/09/1937 – Falkirk Herald – Fire bricks substituted for opium. (Not a Scottish brick story but of interest).
Below – 22/02/1940 – The Scotsman – Scottish bricks for RAF buildings.
31/12/1943 – The Scotsman – Property wanted to purchase. Wanted to purchase, three brickworks or clay deposits suitable for brickmaking in Scotland. Railway siding not essential but preferable. Immediate cash waiting. John Blackwood (Machinery merchants). 15 Annbank Street, Glasgow.
Below – 11/11/1946 – The Scotsman. Australia in search of Scottish ex-servicemen brick makers.
13/02/1948 – Dundee Courier – Hard liquor – Bricks substituted for Scotch Whisky and exported to Canada.
30/07/1955 – Fifeshire Advertiser – Record sale of bricks – Judging from the sales of Scottish bricks the building industry in Scotland seems to be working at full pressure. Sales during June reached the peak monthly figure of 78 million about 7 million more than the previous best month, Oct 1953. The production during June was 66 million. Although sales this summer have been much higher than last year – probably due to the better weather – there are still adequate stocks of bricks at brickworks.
04/01/1956 – Kirkintilloch Herald – Obituary – The funeral took place on Wednesday last, to Cadder Cemetery of Mr Andrew Craig who died on 26th December after a long illness at his home 85 Springfield Square, Bishopbriggs … educated at Cadder School he became an agriculturalist, a miner and when ponies were introduced underground at Lumloch Colliery over 60 years ago, he had the honour of driving the first one in that pit. Later in life, he entered the brick industry and from his practical experience made a study of brick burning, which enabled him to master many of the difficulties that confronted those in that trade. His advice and service were often requested in different parts of the county of Lanark when they had troubles to overcome … above average in ability and outlook, Andrew Craig was a man who lived the simple life and enjoyed simple tastes. When in a position of responsibility he never drove those under him but by his humane outlook in life radiated graciousness and lightened the life of all who worked with him and gained their respectful affection. His many friends will grieve at the passing of one who had a rare combination of qualities both vocational and personal.
06/09/1957 – Motherwell Times – Notable extensions at Fullwood Foundry … A double row glaring on aide I walls, gables and roof give ample lighting, and the shop is well ventilated. The building galvanised sheeted to within 8 feet of the ground, Colvilles Slag Bricks being used to complete the walls to ground level …
2014 – Peter John Drummond M.A. (Hons), M.Sc., University of Glasgow – An analysis of toponyms and toponymic patterns in eight parishes of the upper Kelvin basin.
The following are some interesting links between location names and possible early brick making.
CLADDENS CAD S NS668715 1 65m
Clyden 1795 Richardson
Cladden 1816 Forrest
Claddens 1864 OS 1st edn.
‘At the ditch place’
The name Claddens (or Cleddans) recurs in NMO and KTL, as well as elsewhere in the
central belt, and is more fully discussed under the KTL instance (q.v.). The early forms of
this instance do not have the s, and another apparently lost265 Claddens # (Forrest), also
CAD, may have influenced this (eastern) one’s late plural form; it is also possible that it
may originally have represented Sc clay dene, ‘little valley with clay’, since Clayhouse is
only 400m to the south. The farm (as mapped by Forrest and the OS) stood close to the
Bothlin Burn, perhaps the eponymous ‘ditch’.
GARTLETHAM # BDK, CPS S NS606755 1 100m
Gartlechane (or Gartlachan) alias Barrastoun 1544 Laing Chrs. No. 489
Gartletham alias Barrestoun 1785 TE9/70 p. 349
G gart + G lachan or G leacann
‘Rushes, or slope, enclosure’ (gart lachain or gart leacainn)
The land round this spot has been severely disturbed by mineral extraction – by the time of
the OS survey it was the site of fireclay workings, and today there is a water-logged
quarry, so linking the name to the topography is problematic. However Roy’s map shows
Rashyhill (Sc rash, ‘rush’), now lost, almost at this spot (c.NS6074) which may be a parttranslation.
GLENCRYAN CND S NS774736 1 145m
Glen Crying 1825 NLC Archives U7/02/1
Glen Crying 1846 NLC Archives UT/145/1/3
Glencryan 1864 OS 1st edn.
G gleann + ? G crìan
‘Small, or dry, valley’
Although the only records of this name are late, it appears to be a G toponym, and refers to
a small, deep-cut glen of the Red Burn. The specific is probably G crìon or crìan, as in
Crianlarich PER, ‘small, diminutive’ or ‘withered, dry’, the former being more appropriate
to its size compared to nearby downstream Vault Glen. Millar (1980, 56) however states;
“Glencryan . . . is, in Gaelic, the “Little Clayey Glen”382, from whence clay was extracted
for brick and tile making . . .“: and the on-site NLC information boards (probably based on
Millar) derive it from G crè or criadh, ‘clay’, and state that there was brick-making [using
clay] from the 1800s. The NSA of 1839, a detailed description occupying 20 pages, with
much detail on the economy, does not mention brick or tile making; and there cannot have
been the necessary technology available when the G name was given, which must raise
doubts as to this etymology383